Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet: New Essays

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In fact, looking at media fandom today, we may already be seeing changed attitudes—even as the debates continue over remix permission and unauthorised use. In discussing the limits of unauthorised use, it is important to distinguish plagiarism and copyright violation from forms of remix. While we are more concerned with the ethical issues surrounding plagiarism, we want to briefly address copyright infringement, simply because it often gets mixed into the ethics of remixes. Copyright is strictly defined as a matter of law; in many of the online debates in media fandom, it is often further restricted to U.

Law, because a large number of the source texts are owned by U. According to the U. Over the years, however, intellectual property rights have been expanded and increased at the expense of the public commons Lessig, Boyle. The legal status of fan fiction remains undefined without a specific case that would test the fair use doctrine in regards to fan fiction, yet fair use and fan fiction advocates argue that fan fiction should be understood as eminently transformative and thus protected under fair use.

The nonprofit fan advocacy group, the Organization for Transformative Works , in fact makes clear its position by including the legal term in their name, reflecting a changing understanding of both fans and scholars. Whereas copyright infringement is a legal concept that punishes violations between fan writers and commercial copyright holders, plagiarism instead is defined by the norms of the audience for which a piece is written: definitions of plagiarism thus differ from academic to journalist to literary contexts.

Within fandom one of the most blatant and most easily detectable forms of plagiarism is when a fan copies another work wholesale and publishes it under their own name, either within the same fandom or by simply searching and replacing names to make it fit another fandom.

Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet - Fanlore

Other times, fan writers may take selections of published pro or fan fiction and insert them into their works. The community keeps a list of known plagiarisers that include the names of over fan writers. Fan fiction plagiarism can only be determined on a case-by-case basis—and fans remain hypervigilant simply because they are all too often falsely accused as merely plagiarising when instead they are interpreting, translating, and transforming. There is another form of fannish offense that does not actually constitute plagiarism but is closely connected to it, namely the wholesale reposting of stories with attributions intact.

This practice is frowned upon for two main reasons. Archiving stories without authorial permission strips authors of this ability. Reposting thus removes the story from the fannish gift exchange—or, worse, inserts the archivist in lieu of the author as the recipient of thanks and comments. A small group of professional authors vocally proclaim fan fiction as unethical, illegal, or both. It injures the name of the party whose identity is stolen. The characters are copyrighted. It upsets me terribly to even think about fan fiction with my characters.

I advise my readers to write your own original stories with your own characters.

Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet : New Essays

It is absolutely essential that you respect my wishes. Many fan fiction writers respect these wishes and do not write in book fandoms where the authors have expressed their desires clearly. Most of these debates are restricted to book fandoms, likely for two reasons: 1 film and TV fan fiction alters the medium, so that there is no possibility that the two works might be mistaken for one another; and 2 film and TV authorship tends to be collaborative and thus lowers the individual sense of ownership Mann, Sellors.

Most fan fiction writers strongly dismiss accusations of plagiarism and theft, two accusations that all too easily are raised against fan fiction and yet, as we have shown, such accusations actually misdefine terms. Fans extensively debate the artistic values of fan fiction, often drawing from classical literary discussions and examples. The moment you gave it to us, those walls broke. You may hate the fact people are imagining more to your story than what you put there.

Bookshop LJ, 3 May Many fan writers view their own remixes as part of a larger cultural movement that appropriates found objects and culturally relevant materials to create new things, much like larger twentieth century movements that include Dada and Pop Art, as well as feminist and postcolonial challenges to the literary canon.

Finally, fan fiction partakes in 21st century ideas of social anarchy to create a cultural creative commons of openly shared ideas.

Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet: New Essays

Fan Cupidsbow describes. All these things are about how people are interacting with technology every day, and not just digital technology, but pens and paper and clothes and food fusions and everything else.

Cupidsbow LJ, 20 May Legally, of course, these reuses of collectively shared materials are often treated quite differently, which is why fan fiction advocates often maintain that all remixes be treated equally—regardless of whether their source text is film, TV, literature, or fan fiction. The Archive of Our Own, a project of the Organization for Transformative Works, for example, does not distinguish in its Content and Abuse Policy section between commercial and fan works in regard to plagiarism and copyright.

Returning to the initial case of the Stargate Atlantis Mission Report Challenge, we can thus see how the moderator clearly positions herself within a framework that considers all remixes equally remixable. Many fans assert that all remixes should be tolerated by the creators of their respective source texts—be they pro or fan. New product development phases essay dissertationen online suche wohnung essay corruption words.

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4 Fan Fiction Subgenres So Weird They're Inspiring - Cracked Responds

Graham J. The Medium Is the Monster. Mark A. Beyond Choices. Miguel Sicart. Interzone November-December TTA Press. Interfacing with the Internet in Popular Cinema. Race in Cyberspace. Beth Kolko.


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