FORTRAN

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A parallel neural net microframework. Read the paper here. If you use gfortran and want to build neural-fortran in parallel mode, you must first install OpenCoarrays. Once installed, use the compiler wrappers caf and cafrun to build and execute in parallel, respectively:.

If you want to build with a different compiler, such as Intel Fortran, specify FC when issuing cmake :. This option is currently available only with gfortran. By default, neural-fortran is built in single precision mode bit floating point numbers. Alternatively, you can configure to build in 64 or bit floating point mode:.

Creating a network with 3 layers, one input, one hidden, and one output layer, with 3, 5, and 2 neurons each:.

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By default, the network will be initialized with the sigmoid activation function for all layers. You can specify a different activation function:. It's possible to set different activation functions for each layer. For example, this snippet will create a network with a Gaussian activation functions for all layers except the output layer, and a RELU function for the output layer:.

Available activation function options are: gaussian , relu , sigmoid , step , and tanh. The size of input and output arrays must match the sizes of the input and output layers, respectively. The learning rate eta determines how quickly are weights and biases updated. When running in parallel mode, you may need to synchronize the weights and biases between images. In Fortran programs, you will almost always see these defined at the very top of the program, unlike in other languages where you can define them as you go along.

Fortran likes to know at the start which variables it is dealing with. We will cover what the different types are in the next section. Note also how we have added comments to explain in more human-readable format what each variable does.

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The remaining bit of the program is the actual bit where the area of the triangle is calculated. Our pre-declared variables have values assigned to them using common mathematical operators and functions. This program would be saved like a plain-text file, but we would give it the extension.

By convention. To run the program, we would first need to compile it, which is covered in a later section of the tutorial. Fortran has a set of rules used to determine whether a program is valid and can be understood by the computer, a bit like a human language. Using the above triangle program as a starting point, we will cover the very basic syntax of the Fortran language.

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Within these statements, this is where the calculations on data are performed in the program. Variables represent data or values used in your program. Variables can also be used to store non-numeric values such as text, letters, and words, for example. We refer to variables in Fortran as having certain Types.


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A type describes what kind of data the variable is expected to contain. These are examples of how we could describe our variables using keywords to keep track of what kind of data we are using. In Fortran , we are required to be specific about what kind of data our variables are. Fortran has a set of keywords that are used to define the different types of variables. We are saying with these statements that we want to create two integers, n and m and that they will be assigned the values 3 and 6 respectively.

We can delay assigning values until later on in the program, if necessary. Fortran has different types for numeric values. For example, if our calculations required non-integer numbers, such as 3. Once we have create variables in a Fortran program, we can manipulate them and change them. Variables in fortran are usually defined in the first few lines of the program or a function, like in our example program above.

This type refers to variables that are used as True or False values. Note that we can can define multiple variables on the same line, separated by a comma. This saves space and typing, and would be the equivalent of writing:. Variable names may be made up of standard latin-alphabet characters, underscores, and numbers. Note that Fortran is not case-sensitive.

Keywords and variable names may be written in uppercase or lowercase. Fortran does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase names, so be careful of using them in variable names.

Introduction to Fortran

You can chose to use either uppercase or lowercase, but it is good practice to be consistent in their use, for readability. When you are running a Fortran program, the easiest way to see the results of the calculation or other outputs are to print them to the terminal, command line, or console. These are all terms used interchangeably to refer to the same thing - the window where commands can be entered and text is printed out to screen.

You also need a way of inputting data to the program. This can also be done for this simple example program by typing the values directly into the terminal from the keyboard.

In a later tutorial we may cover reading information in from text files. In , Backus was awarded the National Medal of Science. He was the first IBMer to receive this award. Two years later, he was awarded the equally prestigious Turing Award from the Association for Computing Machinery. Skip to main content. IBM Icons of Progress.

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Back to All Icons. Previous Next. Fortran team, 25th reunion A photo from the National Computer Conference in Houston features members of the original Fortran team.